Facial trauma is one of the most frequent pathologies in emergency departments. The injuries and facial fractures are usually caused by assault, traffic accidents and sporting accidents in young patients. The fractures which occur in older aged patients are usually caused by accidental falls or household accidents.
The general objective of the treatment of facial traumas is the functional reposition (to maintain sight, dental occlusion, mouth opening etc.) and the restoration of the aesthetics, an aftermath in the facial area can result in psychological problems and difficulties in social relations in patients due to the area being so visible.
The most frequent fractures are of the nose and the jaw, followed by the Maxilla, cheek bone and the orbit. The frontal bone is the least frequent.
The jaw and upper maxilla fractures should be treat appropriately achieving an optimal reduction to avoid important problems such as chewing difficulty, pain or problems with the temporomandibular joint.
When orbital fractures are produced, an ophthalmology evaluation is very important together with an adequate reduction to maintain function and the position of the eye to minimise the risks of after effects.
The bones of the nose are highly susceptible to fractures due to facial traumas and should be evaluated and reduced if a deformity exists.
The complex wounds and facial fractures should be evaluated and treated by a specialised team who can offer the best results to achieve an optimal aesthetic and functional result in each case.